This series represents the first time all the extant targums will have been translated into English. Scholars of both Jewish and Christian communities of the English-speaking world have given a warm welcome to the series, which is filling a large gap in the body of targums available in English.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 2: Targum Neofiti 1: Exodus and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Exodus

Translated by Martin McNamara, MSC, with notes by Robert Hayward; Michael Maher, MSC

The Book of Exodus speaks of central events in Jewish self-understanding: the Exodus from Egypt, the covenant with Moses, and the giving of the Law. It is part narrative, part religious law. This translation of the Palestinian Targums of Exodus will assist in understanding this biblical book which is, in itself, an elaborate redaction of the Jewish faith.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 4: Targum Neofiti 1: Numbers and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Numbers

Translated by Martin McNamara, MSC, and Ernest G. Clarke

It is generally recognized that the Book of Numbers is one of the least unified books of the Bible. It is a collection of censuses, laws, and traditions concerning the sojourn of the people of Israel in the wilderness and of the first conquests of the territories promised to Israel. Yet it also carries narrative of notable events and lessons. Both aspects of Numbers benefit from their development in these targums.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 18: The Two Targums of Esther

Translated by Bernard Grossfeld

What is called the Magillat Esther ("Scroll of Esther") is part of the biblical group of books in the Hagiographa known as the "Five Megillot," designating Esther, the Scrolls of Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes. These five scrolls play an integral part in Jewish liturgy next to the Pentateuch; and yet Esther (as well as others of these five) had difficulty being included in the Hebrew canon as sacred Scripture. Professor Grossfeld provides a straightforward, idiomatic translation of the original Aramaic for the Targum Rishon and the Targum Sheni, with comments on the so-called "Third Esther Targum."

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 1B: Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Genesis

Translated by Michael Maher, MSC

Incorrectly attributed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, this Targum, part of the Palestinian Targums, has been call Pseudo-Jonathan to rectify this mistaken identification. Pseudo-Jonathan provides us with a translation of almost every verse of the Pentateuch. Unique from other Targums of the Pentateuch in many ways, this Targum is also very much a composite work, but one composed with skill and initiative.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 19: The Targums of Ruth and Chronicles

Translated by J. Stanley McIvor and Derek R. G. Beattie

One approach to Chronicles would suggest that it was not considered an altogether vital component in the canon, but later it came to play a specific interpretative role. Others suggest that it came to be regarded as the authorized version of the history of Israel. In the Jewish liturgical tradition the Book of Ruth is read at the festival of Shavuot, or Pentecost, and it may be conjectured that the Targum originated in conjunction with this practice. The Targum of Ruth exists in a large number of manuscripts; the eight used in the present work are of European provenance.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 5B: Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Deuteronomy

Translated by Ernest G. Clarke

This volume on Deuteronomy represents the last volume of the Pentateuch in the Pseudo-Jonathan series. It includes the translation and notes of Pseudo-Jonathan of Deuteronomy as well a complete index. Many of the methods of translation unique to Pseudo-Jonathan noted in the Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers volumes are also found in Deuteronomy. The editors of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Deuteronomy used a creative literary style that resulted in a text with a character independent of the other volumes. The question of when, where, and by whom the targum was composed is unanswerable. The present text of Pseudo-Jonathan is the result of much editing, reediting, copying, and recopying of the "original" manuscript. The only certain fact is the 16th-century date of the present manuscript. Those interested in the Aramaic tradition of biblical interpretation, and students of Jewish studies will find Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Deuteronomy an invaluable resource.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 17B: The Targum of Lamentations

Volume 17B

Translated, with an Introduction, by Philip S. Alexander

This work provides a definitive translation into English of the Targum of Lamentations, based on a critical reading of all the extant versions, with textual annotations and extensive notes. An appendix offers, in addition, a translation and annotation of the Yemenite version.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 15: The Targums Job, Proverbs, and Qohelet

Translated by Céline Mangan, OP, John Healey, and Peter S. Knobel

The Targum of Job is regarded as one of the most enigmatic of targums. The translation used is based on the Cambridge University MS Ee. 5.9, widely regarded as the most important of known manuscripts. This manuscript is followed as closely as possible, including the marginal readings and the Variant Targum[s] incorporated in the text. The primary aim of the Proverbs Targum is to provide an English translation, none having yet been published. A secondary aim is to give an account of the relationship of this targum to the Hebrew text and the other ancient versions, especially the Syriac. Targum Qohelet is a blend of literal translation and midrashic paraphrase. The purpose is didactic, seeking to convey the meaning which is implicit in the text. Thus Qohelet becomes a vehicle to emphasize the importance of Torah study, repentance, prayer, and charity.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 14: The Targum of the Minor Prophets

Translated by Kevin Cathcart and Robert P. Gordon

Although the term "minor prophets" is a familiar one in English Bible translations, it is not a felicitous one, since it applies as much to Hosea as to Haggai and to Amos as to Obadiah. The Targum offers no such pecking order. Nuggets of importance are as likely to be found in a Targumized "minor" prophet as a "major" one. Included in this volume are the books of Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The authors' apparatus in the introduction provides the translational characteristics, theology, life-setting, text and versions, language, rabbinic citations and parallels, dating, manuscripts, and bibliography. A series of indices is also included.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 1A: Targum Neofiti 1: Genesis

Translated by Martin McNamara, MSC

Beginning with an introduction of the "Palestinian Targums," or "Targum Yerushalmi," the author relates the history of the term, research in the field, and other background information on the Palestinian Pentateuch Targums before providing a verse-by-verse translation of Neofiti 1.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 3: Targum Neofiti 1: Leviticus and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Leviticus

Translated by Martin McNamara, MSC, Michael Maher, MSC, and Robert Hayward

The importance of Leviticus for the Jews of the post-biblical period cannot be exaggerated. Leviticus contains laws which regulated almost all aspects of communal and individual life. These targums shed light on how Leviticus was understood and its laws practiced.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 11: The Targum Isaiah

Translated by Bruce D. Chilton

Designed for those who are beginning Targum study, this book also provides material for those who have already made some progress. Beginners will have recourse first of all to the Translation, and the Notes are intended to help orient them in the message conveyed by the Targum in its two levels. Students with recourse to Aramaic will perhaps require remarks of a linguistic and textual nature; these are given in the Apparatus. Additional material for more advanced students is also offered in the Notes, to help relate the exegesis of the Targum to the intertestamental document, Rabbinica, and the New Testament.

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The Aramaic Bible Volume 17A: The Targum of Canticles

Translated by Philip S. Alexander

Written in the eighth century C.E., Targum Canticles offers one of the classic interpretations of the Song of Songs. In the relationship between the bridegroom and the bride in the Song, with its rhythm of communion, estrangement and reconciliation, the Targumist discovers allegorical history of God's relationship to Israel from the first exodus from Egypt, to the final exodus from exile when the Messiah comes. The Targum of Canticles was one of the most popular religious texts within Judaism, and it may have promoted the use of the Song of Songs as the special reading for Passover. It was adapted in the medieval and early modern periods by Christian scholars who saw in the Song a cryptic history of Christ’s relationship to the Church. Targum Canticles has played a central role in the interpretation of one of the most puzzling yet influential books of the Bible. Philip S. Alexander is professor of post-biblical Jewish literature in the University of Manchester, England, and has published extensively in the fields of early Jewish Bible-interpretation (particularly the Targumim), early Jewish mysticism and magic, and the history of Rabbinic Judaism.

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